This new book chapter highlights the unique characteristics of soils across the United States and discusses their genesis. The chapter is part of a new International Encyclopedia of Geography.
Highlights • We developed a Browse Extension to simulate effects of ungulates on the growth and survival of plant species cohorts. • The capabilities of the extension were explored via case studies in the Allegheny National Forest and Isle Royale National Park, USA. • In both model applications, browsing reduced total aboveground live biomass and caused shifts in forest composition. • Simulations that included effects of browsing resulted in successional patterns that were similar to those observed in the study regions. • Neglecting effects of browsing when modeling forest succession may result in flawed predictions of forest biomass and composition in some ecosystems.
The identification of unique areas of vegetative potential across the Northern Appalachians is complicated by a long land-use history of vegetation management. We introduce provisional ecological sites and associated state-and-transition models for the region, which can be differentiated by latitudinal drivers of: precipitation and temperature; local parent material and resulting soil differences; and landscape position, slope, or aspect. Identification of ecological sites and associated States or Phases in the Northern Appalachians provides land managers with quantifiable benchmarks for assessing forest compositional shifts due to natural or anthropogenic disturbance. Drohan, Patrick, and Alex Ireland. "Provisional, Forested Ecological Sites in the Northern Appalachians and Their State-and-Transition Models." Rangelands (2016).