The Cardinale lab works on the restoration of biodiversity and ecosystem services in freshwater habitats, including wetlands, lakes, streams, and rivers.

Within the 'triad' of natural resource management (Conservation, Restoration, and Design), restoration has become perhaps the most important form of management in the modern era. In part, this is because a large fraction of Earth's ecosystems have already been degraded by human activities, and there are growing opportunities to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services by restoring ecosystems to what once existed, or to levels that are comparable to the best habitats that remain.

Example Projects

Great Lakes Restoration

Cardinale began his career working on restoration of Great Lakes coastal wetlands that had been drained for agriculture.

Stream restoration

Streams and rivers comprise less than 1% of Earth’s surface, but they are disproportionately important for Earth’s biogeochemical cycles, and they harbor some of the highest levels of biodiversity, particularly for groups like fish and mussels.


  • Department Head, Ecosystem Science and Management