Ryegrass grew well in all SFS-based manufactured soils and greatly exceeded growth on natural topsoil.

Ryegrass is very responsive to nitrogen, and biosolids and SMS clearly supplied more nitrate nitrogen than yard trimmings compost.

Ash and TSP incubation with soil.

Effect of ash addition on Mehlich3 extractable soil phosphorus.

Fall establishment and growth of ryegrass was improved by ash addition.

Spring 2003 growth saw less differences in growth.

Dry matter production by ryegrass increased with increasing ash addition in Fall 2002.

Tissue phosphorus concentrations were increased by ash in the fall of 2002 with much smaller increases in spring 2003.