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Sanford S. Smith, Ph.D.

  • Senior Lecturer in Forest Resources and Extension Education
  • Natural Resources & Youth Extension Specialist
Sanford S. Smith, Ph.D.
335 Forest Resources Building
University Park, PA 16802
Email:
Work Phone: 814-865-4261

Areas of Expertise

  • Youth and Natural Resources Education
  • Forest Stewardship
  • Natural Resources Volunteerism
  • Private Forestland Management
  • Connecting Youth with Nature
  • Forest Dendrology and Botany

Education

  1. B.S., University of Maine (1980)
  2. M.S., The Pennsylvania State University (1987)
  3. Ph.D., The Pennsylvania State University (2001)

Academic Interests:

Natural resources and youth education programs

Adult volunteerism in conservation and environmental education

Connecting youth with nature

Private forestland management

Forest stewardship on private forest lands

Recent Research/Education Projects:

Teach for Forests (TFF) The need for better public awareness and understanding about Pennsylvania's forest resources (wildlife and forests) has never been greater.  The online TFF course assists teachers in addressing this need.  It is designed to give K-7th grade teachers the information and educational tools they need to teach a balanced environment and ecology curriculum related to Pennsylvania's forests, water, and wildlife. The long term objective of TFF is to provide students with the skills and knowledge to recognize, analyze, and make decisions relating to Pennsylvania's forest resources.

Watershed Education Curriculum Evaluation This research evaluated the Watershed Education (WE) curriculum, developed for Pennsylvania teachers (grades 6-12) by Pennsylvania's Department of Conservation of Natural Resources, Bureau of State Parks (DCNR/BSP). It had two primary objectives: 1) to measure the impact the WE program has had on teachers' knowledge, behavior, confidence, and self-efficacy in teaching about watersheds, and 2) to inform DCNR/BSP of ways to enhance program participation. The results indicated that teachers who participated in the WE training, and who use the curriculum in their classrooms, exhibit a significantly higher degree of pro-watershed behavior inside and outside the classroom than do non-participants. Participants also exhibit significantly greater confidence and self-efficacy than teachers who have not participated in the WE training. Suggestions for increasing the program's effectiveness and future research were also provided to DCNR/BSP.

Adult Volunteerism in Conservation and Environmental Education in Pennsylvania This study focused on adult volunteerism in conservation and environmental education (EE) for youth. While it is a common phenomenon, there are few empirical studies and evaluations on this form of volunteerism. The literature on volunteerism in general has much to teach us about this field, and the many factors which motivate adults to volunteer. Conservation and EE volunteer activity for youth is generally carried out through non-formal education groups such as 4-H, scouting, parks, museums, or environmental/nature centers. This study sought to determine the common factors that these volunteers share and the willingness of other groups of individuals to volunteer.

Enhancing Extension Agent Skills in the Delivery of Conservation Education Extension Agents working with youth often have a background in traditional agriculture or home economics. Because of this, and a lack of past encouragement, they are sometimes reluctant to incorporate conservation education and natural resources programs into their Plans of Work. Regular in-service offerings on Natural Resources and Youth Education topics are helping to expand youth involvement across the state. This is an area with tremendous potential for program expansion.

Selected Publications

Reichenbach  M. R., A.B. Muth, and S.S.Smith. 2013. Transformative Learning in Practice: Examples from Extension Education. Journal of Extension. Journal of Extension. [On-line] 51 (6) Article No. 6FEA1  Available at http://www.joe.org/joe/2013december/a1.php

Smith, S.S., Finley, J.C. & G.J. San Julian.  2010.  Will natural resources professionals volunteer to teach youth?  International J. Applied Environmental Education and Communication. (Accepted for publication).

Smith, S.S..  2010.  Forest Story Cards – A Visual Survey Tool for Generating Dialogue about Forests. Submitted to The Journal, of Extension, (Accepted for publication).

Bardon, R., Meyer, N., Moore, S., Overholt, G., Peterson, G., Siomne-Brown, V., Smith, S., &  Stortz, P. 2009. Riskometer: Voting with your feet.  J. Extension [On-line] 47 (2) Article No. 2TOT2. Available at http://www.joe.org/joe/2009april/tt2.php. (contributed ideas and edited paper)

Bardon, R., Meyer, N., Moore, S., Overholt, G., Peterson, G., Siomne-Brown, V., Smith, S., Stortz, P., &  Vandenberg, L. 2009. Communication techniques for initiating discussion about complex value-laden issues. J. Extension [On-line], 47(1) Article 1TOT1. Available at http://www.joe.org/joe/2009february/tt1.php. (contributed ideas and edited paper)

Gruver J. B, Smith S.S. and J.C. Finley. 2008.  Watershed curriculum evaluation for educators in Pennsylvania. J. Applied Environmental Education and Communication.  Vol 7, pp 164-170.  (supervised graduate student, directed the research, contributed ideas, and edited the article).

Carrozzino, A.L. and  S.S.Smith. 2008. Evaluation of a wildlife management exhibit for youth.  J. Extension. [On-line], Vol. 46: (4) http://www.joe.org/joe/2008august/rb6.shtml (oversaw thesis work of Schreyer’s Honor Student, directed research, contributed ideas, edited article)

Smith, S.S. and J.C. Finley. 2004. Targeted recruitment of 4-H volunteers involves understanding who currently volunteers and why.  J. Extension. [On-line], Vol. 42: (4).. http://www.joe.org/joe/2004august/a6.shtml (authored 95%, a portion of my doctoral research)

Ingram, P.D., M.H. Dorsey, and S.S. Smith. 2004 . Tips for designing publications for underrepresented audiences.  J. Extension. [On-line], Vol. 42: (4). http://www.joe.org/joe/ 2004august/tt2.shtml (contributed ideas and edited paper)

Smith, S.S. and N.E. Kiernan. 1992. Postcard newsletter evaluation.  J. Extension. Winter: Vol. 30: (4) [On-line], http://www.joe.org/joe/1992winter/iw2.html (authored 95%, conducted the research)

 Articles published in non-refereed journals and proceedings

Grant, J. and S. S. Smith. 2012. Amphibians. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 4 p.

 Schoonhoven, L., J.C. Finley, and S. S. Smith. 2011. Wildfire. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 4 p.

 Fetter, J.R., S. S. Smith, A. E. Spotts, K. R. Myers, M. Z. Royer, C. Medved and D. J. Oleson. 2010. Riparian BUFFers, Making Our Riparian Areas Strong. http://extension.psu.edu/4-h/leaders/publications/BUFFers.pdf/view

 S.S. Smith, et. al. 2010. The 4-H Nature Start Mentor’s Guide Book. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 57 p. http://extension.psu.edu/4-h/leaders/publications/Nature%20Start%20Bk%202011.pdf/view

Smith, S.S. 2009. Dr. Henry Gerhold retires from Penn State after 50 years.  Urban Forestry News (Spring 2009 edition) Vol.16: No.1. p. 5.

Smith, S.S. 2008.  Commentary: Have the backgrounds and opinions of forestry students changed much?  The Forestry Source, Society of American Foresters. Vol. 13: No. 10. p. 3-5.

Smith, S. S. 2008.  Paper!.  Pennsylvania Forests (Spring 2008 edition) Vol. 99: No.1.  magazine insert. 4 pp.

Smith, S. S. 2008.  Summer campfires … teachable moments.  Pennsylvania Forests (Summer 2008 edition) Vol. 99: No. 2. p.20.

Smith, S. S. 2007.  A living timeline … The man behind the centennial book.  Pennsylvania Forests (Spring 2007 edition) Vol. 98: No. 1. p. 8-10.

Smith, S. S. 2007.  Junior forest steward program.  Pennsylvania Forests (Fall 2007 edition) Vol. 98: No. 3. p. 16-17.

Smith, S.S. 2006.  Key that tree.  Sylvan Communities (Summer/Fall 2006)  p.25-28.

Smith, S.S. 2006. A bit of primeval forest. Pennsylvania Forests. (Spring 2006 edition) Vol. 97: No. 1. p. 18-19.

Smith, S.S. 2006. “Nuts” about nuts. The Nutshell, The Quarterly Journal of the Northern Nut Growers Association. (June 2006 edition) Vol. 60: No. 2. p. 20-23.

Smith, S.S. 2006. The art in forestry. Pennsylvania Forests (Fall 2006 edition) Vol. 97: No. 3. p. 15-19.

Smith, S.S. 2006. Incredible wood. Pennsylvania Forests. (Fall 2006 edition) Vol. 97: No. 4.  magazine insert. 4 pp.

Smith, S.S. 2006. Teacher resource, environment and ecology series. Pennsylvania Forests. (Fall 2006 edition) Vol. XX: Vol. 97: No. 3. p. 25.

Smith, S.S. 2005. New views on our forests.  Urban Forestry News (Fall 2005 edition) Vol.14: No.2. p. 7&13.

Smith, S.S. 2005. “Nuts” about Nuts. Pennsylvania Forests. Vol. 95: No. 4. p. 9-11.

Smith, S.S. 2003. Penn State offers sustainable forestry web site to teachers.  J. Forestry. April/May. p. 5.

Smith, S.S. 1999. Conducting tours and open houses. Proceedings, Penn State School of Forest Resources Issues Conference.  March. p. 67.

Smith, S.S. 1997. Tree farmers realize dream with experimental nut farm. Tree Farmer. May/June: p. 26-27.

Smith, S.S. 1997. Forest stewardship and higher education ...one family’s legacy. Pennsylvania Forests. Spring: p. 15-18.

Smith, S.S. 1995. Experimental nut farm ... the realization of a dream. Pennsylvania Forests. Spring. p. 12-14.

Smith, S.S. 1993. Maple producers: A unique group of woodland owners.  National Woodlands. 16 (1) p. 16-18.

Cooperative Extension Service bulletins and circulars

S.S. Smith, Fetter, J. and A. McDonald. 2008. 4-H Orienteering. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 33 p. http://downloads.cas.psu.edu/4h/OrienteeringProject.pdf

Smith, S..S.  2007.  Watersheds & Wetlands, Environment and Ecology Series.  Penn State Cooperative Extension.  The Pennsylvania State University. 4 p.

Smith, S. S. 2007.  Threatened, Endangered & Extinct, Environment and Ecology Series.  Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 4 p.

Smith, S. S., A .B. Muth, and J. C. Finley. 2007. Become a Junior Forest Steward.  Penn State Cooperative Extension.  The Pennsylvania State University. 6 p.

Smith, S.S & B.R. Deeter. 2006. Ecosystems, Environment and Ecology Series. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 4 p.

Smith, S.S & B.R. Deeter. 2006. Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources, Environment and Ecology Series. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 4 p.

Smith, S.S., W.F. Elmendorf, and H.D. Gerhold. 2005. Community Forests. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 4 p.

Hansen, R.S., J.C. Finley, and S.S. Smith. 2005. Trees+Me=Forestry, 2nd Edition. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 55 p.

Smith, S. S and T. Coulter. 2004. American Chestnut. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 4 p.

Smith, S. S and J.C. Finley. 2004. Ten Important Hardwoods. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 4 p.

Drohan, J.R., W.E. Sharp, and S.S. Smith. 2004. Water Quality Matters: 4-H Water Project Unit 3. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 31 p.

Williams L.M., M.C. Brittingham, and S.S. Smith. 2003. The Wildlife Manager. 4-H Wildlife Project, Intermediate Unit. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 48 p.

Smith, S. S and L.R. Stover. 2002. Incredible Wood. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 4 p.

Hansen, R.S. and S.S. Smith. 2002. Hardwood Veneer. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 4 p.

Smith, S. S and L.R. Stover. 2002. Paper! Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 4 p.

Smith, S. S, J.C. Finley, and M.G. Jacobson. 2002. Sustainable Forestry. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 4 p.

Drohan, J.R., W.E. Sharp, and S.S. Smith. 2002. Incredible Water with the Water Lion: 4-H Water Project Unit 2. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 20 p.

Williams L.M., M.C. Brittingham and S.S. Smith. 2001. The Wildlife Ecologist. 4-H Wildlife Project, Intermediate Unit. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 40 p.

Swistock B. and S.S. Smith. 2001. Watersheds. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 4 p.

San Julian, G.J. and S.S. Smith, 2001. White-Tailed Deer. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 4 p.

Drohan, J.R., W.E. Sharp, and S.S. Smith. 2001. Water Conservation with the Water Lion: 4-H Water Project Unit 1. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 22 p.

Smith S.S., R. Adams, and A.L. Davenport. 2000. Hardwood Lumber. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 4 p.

Smith S.S., A.L. Davenport, R.S. Hansen, S.E. Chunko, and J.C. Finley. 2000. Harvesting Trees. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 4 p.

Davenport A.L., S.S. Smith, and R. Adams. 2000. Maple Syrup, A Taste of Nature. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 4 p.

Downing, A.K., S.S. Smith, J.C. Finley, and S.E. Chunko. 2000. Forest Stewardship. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 4 p.

Hansen R.S., S.S. Smith, and J.C. Finley. 2000. Advancing in Forestry. 4-H Forest Resources Advanced Guide. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 60 p.

W. F. Elmendorf and S.S. Smith. 1999. Planting Trees in Your Community Forest by Sylvan and Friends. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 38 p.

Smith, S.S. 1999. (Updated and Revised, 2008) Teaching Youth about Forest Stewardship, Forest Stewardship No. 3. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 8 p.

Smith, S.S. 1999. Summer Key for Pennsylvania Trees. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 6 p.

Smith, S.S, J.C. Finley, and R.S. Hansen. 1998. Treetop. 4-H Forest Resources Beginners Guide. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 52 p.