Peck, J.E. 2016. Multivariate Analysis for Ecologists: Step-by-Step. Second Edition. MjM Software Design, Gleneden Beach, OR. 192 pages, spiral bound to lay flat.

## Purpose

a) a required supplement to the PC‑ORD workshops;
b) a stand-alone guide for self-taught beginning multivariate analysis.

This companion book is available from the new distributor at https://www.wildblueberrymedia.net/store/step-by-step.

## What you'll learn

For each tool, there are sections on:

• what you can do with it
• when you might use it
• what it does
• what it means
• what you need
• what you get
• what else you need to know
• how to run it (in PC-ORD v. 7)
• how to interpret it

## Format

The book introduces techniques and procedures in the order in which you would use them if you were to follow this 10-step analysis process:

1. get yourself ready--brush up on basic statistical concepts
3. get your data structured--structure the matrices for your question of interest
4. explore and prepare your data--get to know the properties of your data
5. select the tools--select tools appropriate to your data and question
6. modify the data--adjust the data as needed to use those tools
7. apply the selected tools--run your chosen analysis tools
8. confirm the patterns--run some other tools and see what you find
9. interpret your results--use graphing tools to infer relationships

## Contents

1. Embracing statistics
2. Articulating goals
3. Meeting matrices
4. Starting in PC-ORD
5. Inputting and screening your data
6. Sampling sufficiently
Step 4. Exploring and preparing your data
8. What have you actually measured?
9. How variable are your data?
Step 5. Selecting the tools
10. Distance measures
11. Model form
12. Analysis tools
13. What is ordination?
14. Meeting parametric assumptions
15. Reweighting responses
Step 7a: Guiding pattern (guided ordination)
16. WA: Weighted averaging
17. Polar (Bray-Curtis) ordination
18. CCA: Canonical correspondence analysis
19. RDA: Redundancy analysis
20. FSO: Fuzzy set ordination
21. Interpreting guided ordinations
Step 7b: Seeking pattern (free ordination)
22. PCA: Principal components analysis
23. NMS: Nonmetric multidimensional scaling
Step 7c: Looking for groups (classification)
25. Cluster analysis
26. TWINSPAN
Step 7d: Testing among groups
27. MRPP: Multi-response permutation procedure
28. PerMANOVA: Distance-based MANOVA
29. SumF
30. ISA: Indicator species analysis
Step 7e: Assessing associations
31. Mantel test
32. FCA: Fourth corner analysis
Step 9: Using interpretive tools
Appendix A: Other PC-ORD Tools
Appendix B: Matrix Algebra Unplugged
Appendix C: How to Report
Appendix E: Available Supplements
Appendix F: Acronyms & Symbols

## Supplements

Supplement A: Check-list Template
Supplement B: Example Analysis Pathways
Supplement C: Examples from the Literature
Supplements D & E are available by request (see Appendix E in Second Edition)
Supplement F: Distance measures calculation spreadsheet

Supplement G: Book figures are available by request (for instruction only)

## Corrections to Multivariate Analysis for Ecologists: Step-by-Step

JeriLynn E. Peck, Second Edition, 2016

Pg. 11, definition of type II error: This should read "leading us to falsely retain a false hypothesis".

Pg. 11, Bonferroni correction in right column: I wrote divided when I meant multiplied, so in two places this should read "correction involves multiplying your observed alpha" and "should thus be multiplied by 9".

Pg. 102, type II error in left column: This should read "of falsely accepting a false hypothesis".

Pg. 141, Figure 28.1