By Jeff Mulhollem April 19, 2017 .. .. UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. — Fragmentation of ecologically important core forests within the northern Appalachians — driven by pipeline and access road construction — is the major threat posed by shale-gas development, according to researchers, who recommend a change in infrastructure-siting policies to head off loss of this critical habitat.
Highlights: Pipelines comprised the largest portion of the shale gas industry footprint; Pipelines were the largest contributor to the fragmentation of core forest; Loss of core forest was double on private land compared to public land; Methods to consolidate pipelines with other infrastructure should be used; New pads should be placed near existing pipelines to reduce further fragmentation.
This new book chapter highlights the unique characteristics of soils across the United States and discusses their genesis. The chapter is part of a new International Encyclopedia of Geography.
Highlights • We developed a Browse Extension to simulate effects of ungulates on the growth and survival of plant species cohorts. • The capabilities of the extension were explored via case studies in the Allegheny National Forest and Isle Royale National Park, USA. • In both model applications, browsing reduced total aboveground live biomass and caused shifts in forest composition. • Simulations that included effects of browsing resulted in successional patterns that were similar to those observed in the study regions. • Neglecting effects of browsing when modeling forest succession may result in flawed predictions of forest biomass and composition in some ecosystems.
The identification of unique areas of vegetative potential across the Northern Appalachians is complicated by a long land-use history of vegetation management. We introduce provisional ecological sites and associated state-and-transition models for the region, which can be differentiated by latitudinal drivers of: precipitation and temperature; local parent material and resulting soil differences; and landscape position, slope, or aspect. Identification of ecological sites and associated States or Phases in the Northern Appalachians provides land managers with quantifiable benchmarks for assessing forest compositional shifts due to natural or anthropogenic disturbance. Drohan, Patrick, and Alex Ireland. "Provisional, Forested Ecological Sites in the Northern Appalachians and Their State-and-Transition Models." Rangelands (2016).
This new book highlights the anniversary of soil science in the United States. Soils are a critical and often unappreciated resource because they are belowfoot and mostly out of sight. This book brings to you a comprehensive overview of the diversity, beauty, and vital importance of soils to ecosystems, agriculture , forestry, and urban infrastructure. It is intended to be a reference and learning tool that will enhance your knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of the soil resources in the USA. Soil supports all terrestrial life forms, and performs functions critical to the well-being of the global population including nutrient and water storage and supply for plant growth, partitioning of precipitation into ground and surface waters, disposal and renovation of anthropogenic wastes, habitat for soil organisms, and support for roads, buildings, and other infrastructure. Soils are a major reservoir of global carbon and can, with proper management, serve as a sink for atmospheric carbon to reduce greenhouse gasses. Soils are relatively resilient, but are subject to degradation if managed improperly. Only by understanding the properties of and processes occurring in the soil, can the soil resource be conserved and sustained for continued support of the Earth’s population. -L. T. West , M. J. Singer, A. E. Hartemink
Dr. Drohan traveled to Ft. Collins, CO this July to participate in a National grazing and grassland workshop for the USDA-ARS and the National Institute of Food and Agricultural. Dr. Drohan was asked to provide an overview of soil health initiatives on forest lands to help set the stage for the workshop and its forthcoming white papers.
Dr. Drohan hosted a study abroad program Spring 2016 that culminated with a 10 day abroad program in Southeastern Ireland with Irish agricultural, environment, and cultural organizations.
Dr. Drohan and others (alumnus Steve Dadio) were recognized this week by the US EPA by receiving an Honorable Mention for the US EPA Scientific and Technological Achievement Award. This is for their "Research on Understanding the Nature of Urban Soils and Their Role in Stormwater and Sewar management."
The recent availability of 1-m laser imaging, detection, and ranging (LiDAR) data in Pennsylvania provides a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) which could improve on existing USDA-NRCS Order 2 soil survey mapping. The ability of LiDAR derived terrain indices to predict hydric soil presence was evaluated across the Northern Appalachians. We developed a logistic regression model to predict hydric soil presence using a dataset of 1153-field data points and several terrain indices derived from LiDAR DEMs. The best performing regression model included slope derived from a 1-m LiDAR DEM, depressions derived from a 5-m LiDAR DEM, and physiographic region. This model was able to successfully predict 67% of hydric soils and 73% of non-hydric soils from a validation dataset. The model performed better at predicting non-hydric soils compared with hydric soils and was not as effective in low slope areas. This suggests that the 1-m LiDAR hydrologic variables used in the study cannot completely account for soil hydric status.
It may be a dim first day of Spring in Happy Valley but we aren't. Left, Shauna Kay Rainford, right Katie Speicher.
The PSU SCL is recruiting an MS student to begin July 1, 2016. This student will work with Dr. Drohan, and Drs. Diefenbach and McDill in the ESM department, on a PA Bureau of Forestry study examining how soil chemistry may influence forbe chemistry and deer health. Interested students should contact Dr. Drohan at firstname.lastname@example.org.
"Riverine wetlands are perhaps the most important type of wetland to humanity due to dependence on them for supporting aspects of navigation, food, power production, development, flood control and recreation (Smith et al., 2008). Today, their protection is essential for flood control and wildlife habitat, and these goals have resulted in numerous efforts at restoring degraded function."
How do a landscape and its people evolve through time? SOILS 499A examines this question and focuses particularly on the role natural resource management has played in the evolution of culture, society, and civilization.
Riparian wetlands are well known for providing the important ecosystem service of carbon storage. However, changes in land-use regimes surrounding riparian wetlands have been shown to result in alterations to the wetland plant community. These plant community changes have the potential to alter litter quality, decomposition rates, and ultimately the capacity of riparian wetlands to store carbon. To determine the effects of plant community shifts associated with disturbance on decomposition and carbon inputs, we performed a yearlong decomposition experiment using in situ herbaceous material, leaf litter, and control litter and examined biomass inputs in six headwater riparian wetlands in central Pennsylvania. Two sites were classified as Hemlock-Mixed Hardwood Palustrine Forest, two were classified as Broadleaf Palustrine Forest, and two were classified as Reed Canary Grass-Floodplain Grassland (Zimmerman et al. 2012). Plant matter with greater initial percent C, percent lignin, and lignin:N ratios decomposed more slowly while plant matter with greater initial cellulose decomposed more quickly. However, no significant differences were found between plant community types in decomposition rate or amount of carbon remaining at the end of the experiment, indicating that the differences in plant community type did not have a large impact on decomposition in riparian wetlands. This work has important implications for studies that examine the decomposition dynamics of a few select species, as they may not capture the decomposition dynamics of the plant community and thus extrapolating results from these studies to the larger ecosystem may be inappropriate. Wetlands Ecol. & Mgmt. DOI 10.1007/s11273-015-9459-6
This summer Jim Thompson of West Virginia University hosted the 2015 Northeast Pedology Graduate Student trip. Students were able to see mineland reclamation, amazing old-growth deciduous and spruce forests, research on non-equilibrium ecology in the recovering high-altitude spruce forests, beautiful wetland systems in Canaan Valley and experience tubing on the Cheat River! Thanks Jim for hosting a great trip.
"Reforesting After Fracking: Working To Restore Pennsylvania’s Drilled Land While most of the attention on the impacts of fracking has focused on things like drinking water, air pollution and earthquakes, state regulators in Pennsylvania are working on another less-discussed, but no less serious, side effect of oil and gas development: forest fragmentation."
"The SSSA has created twelve 2-minute educational videos on the importance of soil, available at www.soils.org/iys/monthly-videos. The group is also encouraging farmers and others to campaign for a Google Doodle on December 5, which is recognized as World Soil Day. Email email@example.com to make your case." -Ben Potter, AgWeb.com
This project is based on applying soil restoration recommendations put forward in Chapter 6.7.3 of the Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual as well as recommendations for ecologically sensible and practical re-vegetation to inactive areas around shale gas pads. Our overarching goal is to design a scientifically sound, replicated experiment that will be monitored through time and can also serve as a demonstration and education site for regulators and gas operators.
"Hydropedology is an emerging, interconnected branch of soil science and hydrology that studies interactive pedologic and hydrologic processes and properties in the Earth’s Critical Zone. It emphasizes in situ soils in the landscape, where distinct pedogenic features (e.g., structure, macropores, and horizonation), environmental variables (e.g., climate, landforms, and organisms), and anthropogenic impacts (e.g., land use and management) interact and dictate the fluxes and pathways of energy and mass flow in the landscape. Considerable synergies are expected through bridging pedology with soil physics, hydrology, and other related bio- and geosciences to enhance the integrated understanding of soil–water–landscape–ecosystem relationships. There are two fundamental questions of hydropedology: 1. How does soil architecture (ranging from the soil pore to landscape scales) control the partitioning of hydrologic fluxes (and related biogeochemical and ecological functions) in heterogeneous landscapes? 2. How does landscape hydrology (and associated transport of energy and mass) influence soil genesis, variability, and function across space and time?"