Diefenbach, D. R., M. J. Cherry, S. D. Cote, R. W. DeYoung, S. A. Gallina Tessaro, B. R. Patterson, and W.D. Walter. 2024. Chapter 49. White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus; Zimmerman 1780). In M. Mellotti and , Eds. Deer of the World. Springer; In press

Pearce, D.L., J.E. Edson, C.S. Jennelle, and W.D. Walter. 2024. Evaluation of DNA yield from various tissue and sampling sources for use in single nucleotide polymorphism panels. Scientific Reports In press

Walter, W.D., B. Hanley, C.E. Them, C. Mitchell, J. D. Kelly, D. Grove, N. Hollingshead, R.C. Abbott, and K. Schuler. 2024. Predicting the odds of chronic wasting disease with the Habitat Risk Software. Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Epidemiology. In press


Gundermann, K. P., D. R. Diefenbach, W.D. Walter, A. M. Corondi, J. E. Banfield, B. D. Wallingford, D. P. Stainbrook, C. S. Rosenberry, and F. E. Buderman. 2023. Change-point models for identifying behavioral transitions in wild animals. Movement Ecology 11, \href{https://doi.org/10.1186/s40462-023-00430-0}

Bondo, K.J., *D. Montecino-Latorre, L. Williams, M. Helwig, K. Duren, M. Hutchinson, and W.D. Walter. Spatial Modeling of two mosquito vectors of West Nile virus using integrated nested Laplace approximations. Ecosphere 14(1): e4346


Fameli, A, J. Edson, J.E. Banfield, C.S. Rosenberry, and W.D. Walter. Variability in prion protein genotypes by spatial unit to inform susceptibility to chronic wasting disease. Prion 16(1): 254-264.

Khouri, R.M, D.C. Wagner, and W. D. Walter. Efficacy of secondary electric fences at preventing direct contact among white-tailed deer. Wildlife Society Bulletin: 46:e1350.

Jennelle, C.S., W.D. Walter, J. Crawford, C.S. Rosenberry, B.D. Wallingford. Movement of white-tailed deer in contrasting landscapes influences management of chronic wasting disease. Journal of Wildlife Management: 86:e22306.

Niedringhaus, K.D, L.S. Ganoe, M. Lovallo, W.D. Walter, M.J. Yabsley, J.D. Brown. Fatal infection with Versteria sp. in a muskrat, with implications for human health. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 34(2): 314–318.


Ganoe, L.S., J.D. Brown, M.J. Lovallo, M.J. Yabsley, K.B. Garrett, A.T. Thompson, R.H. Poppenga, M.G. Ruder, and W.D. Walter. 2021. Surveillance for diseases, pathogens, and toxicants of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) in Pennsylvania and surrounding regions. PlosONE 16(12):e0260987

Bauder, J.M., C.S. Anderson, H.L. Gibbs, M.J. Tonkovich, and W.D. Walter. Landscape features fail to explain spatial genetic structure in white-tailed deer across Ohio, USA. Journal of Wildlife Management 85(8): 1669–168.

Edson, J., J. Brown, W.M. Miller, W.D. Walter. Comparison of sample types from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for DNA extraction and analyses. Scientific Reports 11, 10003. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89390-2

Ganoe, L.S., M.J. Lovallo, J.D. Brown, and W.D. Walter. Ecology of an isolated muskrat population during regional population declines. Northeastern Naturalist 28(1):49–64.


Ensminger, D.C., C. Pritchard, T. Langkilde, T. Gingery, J.E. Banfield, W.D. Walter. The influence of hunting pressure and ecological factors on fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in wild elk. Wildlife Biology 2020: doi.org/10.2981/wlb.00683.

Ahrestani, F.S, M.A. Ternent, M.J. Lovallo, and W. D. Walter. Resource use by American black bears in suburbia: a landholder step selection approach. Human-Wildlife Interactions 14(2):216–227. https://doi.org/10.26077/2af3-235d

Ganoe, L.S., J.D. Brown, M.J. Yabsley, M.J. Lovallo, and W.D. Walter. A review of pathogens, diseases, and contaminants of muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) in North America. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7:233; doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00233

Miller, W.M., C.M. Miller-Butterworth, D.R. Diefenbach, and W.D. Walter. Assessment of spatial genetic structure to identify populations at risk for infection of an emerging epizootic disease. Ecology and Evolution 10(9):3977–3990;  https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6161

Miller, W.L. and W. D. Walter. Can genetic assignment tests provide insight on the influence of captive egression on the epizootiology of chronic wasting disease? Evolutionary Applications. 13:715–726; https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12895.


Miller, W.L., J. Edson, P. Pietrandrea, C. Miller-Butterworth, and W. D. Walter. Identification and evaluation of a core microsatellite panel for use in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). BMC Genetics 20:49.

Schneider, A.L., A.T. Gilbert, W.D. Walter, G.S. Vandeberg, and J.R. Boulanger. Spatial ecology of urban striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in the Northern Great Plains: A framework for future oral rabies vaccination programs. Urban Ecosystems 22:539-552.

Miller, W.L. and W. D. Walter. Spatial heterogeneity of prion gene polymorphisms in an area recently infected by chronic wasting disease. Prion 13(1):65-76.

Amor, J.M., R. Newman, W.F. Jensen, B.C. Rundquist, W.D. Walter, and J.R. Boulanger. Seasonal home ranges and habitat selection of three elk herds in North Dakota. PlosONE 14(2): e0211650. doi.org/ 10.1371/journal.pone.021165


Williamson, L. T., W. D. Walter, S. R. Klinger, D. R. Diefenbach. Estimating detection probability for bird population density estimates. Journal of Wildlife Management. 82(8):1680-1688; doi:10.1002/jwmg.21545.

Walter, W.D.,T.S. Evans, D. Stainbrook, B.D. Wallingford, C.S. Rosenberry, and D.R. Diefenbach. Heterogeneity of a landscape influences size oh home range in a North American cervid. Scientific Reports 8:14667; DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-32937-7


Carrollo, E.M., H.E. Johnson, J.W. Fischer, M. Hammond, P.D. Dorsey, C.W. Anderson, K.C. VerCauteren, and W. David Walter. Influence of precipitation and crop germination on resource selection by mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in southwest Colorado. Scientific Reports 7: 15234.

Miller, W.L. and W.D. Walter. CWDPRNP: a tool for cervid prion sequence analysis in program R. Bioinformatics 33(19):3096-3097.


King, D.T., J.W. Fischer, B. Strickland, W.D. Walter, F.L. Cunningham, and G. Wang. Winter and summer home ranges of American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) captured at loafing sites in the southeastern United States. Waterbirds 39(3):287-294.

Fischer, J.W., D. McMurtry, C.R. Blass, W.D. Walter , J. Beringer, and K.C. VerCauteren. Effects of repeated simulated removal activities on feral swine movements and space use. European Journal of Wildlife Research 62(3):285-292.

Haley, N.J., C. Siepker, W.D. Walter, B.V. Thomsen, J.J. Greenlee, A.D. Lehmkuhl, and J.A. Richt. Antemortem detection of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brush collections and rectal biopsies from white-tailed deer by real time quaking-induced conversion. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 54(4):1108-1116.

Haley, N.J., C. Siepker, L.L. Hoon-Hanks, G. Mitchell, W.D. Walter, M. Manca, R.J. Monello, J.G. Powers, M.A. Wild, E.A. Hoover, B. Caughey, and J. Richt. Seeded amplification of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brushings and recto-anal mucosal associated lymphoid tissues from elk by real time quaking-induced conversion. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 54(4):1117-1126.

Fischer, J.W., C.R. Blass, W.D. Walter , C.W. Anderson, M.J. Lavelle, W.H. Hall, and K.C. VerCauteren. Evaluating a strategy to deliver vaccine to white-tailed deer at a landscape level. Wildlife Society Bulletin 40(2):394-399.

Evans, T.S., M. Kirchgessner, B. Eyler, C.W. Ryan, and W.D. Walter. Habitat influences distribution of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer. Journal of Wildlife Management 80(2): 284-291.


Walter, W.D., D.P. Onorato, and J.W. Fischer. Is there a single best estimator? Selection of home range estimators using area-under-the-curve. Movement Ecology 3:10.


Evans, T.S., K.L. Schuler, and W.D.Walter. Surveillance and monitoring of white-tailed deer for chronic wasting disease in the northeastern United States. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 5(2): 387-393.

Walter, W.D., C.M. Kurle, and J.B. Hopkins, III. Applications of stable isotopes in mammalian ecology. Editorial to Special Issue on Stable Isotopes in Mammals, Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies 50(3):287-290.

Walter, W.D. Use of stable isotopes to identify dietary differences across subpopulations and sex for a free-ranging generalist herbivore. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies 50(3):399-413.

Walter, W.D., R. Smith, M. Vanderklok, and K.C. VerCauteren. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis. Plos ONE 9(3): e90925.

Johnson, H.E., J.W. Fischer, M Hammond, P. Dorsey, W. D. Walter, C.W. Anderson, and K.C. VerCauteren. Evaluation of techniques to reduce deer and elk damage to agricultural crops. Wildlife Society Bulletin 38(2):358-365.


Walter, W.D., J.W. Fischer, C.W. Anderson, D.R. Marks, T. DeLiberto, S. Robbe-Austerman, K.C. VerCauteren. Surveillance and movements of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) relative to cattle farms infected with bovine tuberculosis. Epidemiology and Infection 141(7):1498-1505.

Fischer, J.W., W.D. Walter, M.A. Avery. Brownian bridge movement models to characterize home ranges of avian species. The Condor 115(2):298-305.

Walter, W.D., J.W. Fischer, T.J. Zimmerman, S.E. Hygnstrom, J.A. Jenks, K.C. VerCauteren. Topographic home range of large mammals: is planimetric home range still a viable method? Prairie Naturalist 45(1):21-27.

Berentsen, A.R., M.R. Dunbar, C.E. Fitzpatrick, W.D. Walter. Spatial ecology of urban raccoons in Northeastern Ohio: implications for oral rabies vaccination. Prairie Naturalist 45(1):39-45.


Walter, W.D., C.W. Anderson, and K.C. VerCauteren. Evaluation of remote delivery of passive infrared transponder (PIT) technology to mark large mammals. Plos ONE 7(9): e44838.

Walter, W.D., C. W. Anderson, R. Smith, M. Vanderklok, J. Averill, and K.C. VerCauteren. On-farm mitigation of transmission of tuberculosis from white-tailed deer to cattle: literature review and recommendations. Veterinary Medicine International Article ID 616318.

Walter, W.D., J.W. Fischer, M.A. Avery J.S. Humphrey, T.S. Daughtery, M.P. Milleson, and E.A. Tillman. Using three-dimensional flight patterns at airfields to identify hotspots for avian-aircraft collisions. Applied Geography 35:53-59.

Henningsen, J.C., A.L. Williams, C.M. Tate, S.A. Kilpatrick, and W.D. Walter. Distribution and prevalence of Elaeophora schneideri in moose in Wyoming. Alces 48: 35-44.


VerCauteren, K.C., C.W. Anderson, T.R. Van Deelen, D. Drake, W.D. Walter, S.M. Vantassel, and S.E. Hygnstrom. Regulated commercial harvest to manage overabundant white-tailed deer: an idea to consider? Wildlife Society Bulletin 35(3):185-194.

Avery, M.L., J.S. Humphrey, T.S. Daughtery, J.W. Fischer, M.P. Milleson, E.A. Tillman, W.E. Bruce, and W. D. Walter. Vulture flight behavior and implications to aircraft safety. Journal of Wildlife Management 75(7): 1581-1587.

Walter, W.D., D.M. Baasch, S.E. Hygnstrom, B.D. Trindle, A.J. Tyre, J.J. Millspaugh, C.J. Frost, J.R. Boner, and K.C. VerCauteren. Space use of sympatric deer in a riparian ecosystem in an area chronic wasting disease is endemic. Wildlife Biology 17(2):191-209.

Walter, W.D., J. Beringer, L.P. Hansen, J.W. Fischer, J.J. Millspaugh, and K.C. VerCauteren. Factors affecting space use overlap by white-tailed deer in an urban landscape. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 25(3):379-392.

Walter, W.D., D.P. Walsh, M.L. Farnsworth, D.L. Winkelman, and M. W. Miller. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds. Nature Communications 2:200.


Walter, W.D., M.J. Lavelle, J.W. Fischer, T..J. Johnson, S.E. Hygnstrom, and K.C. VerCauteren. Management of damage by elk (Cervus elaphus) in North America: a review. Wildlife Research 37(8):630-646.

Walter, W.D., D.M. Leslie, Jr., E.C. Hellgren, and D.M. Engle. Identification of subpopulations of North American elk (Cervus elaphus L.) using multiple lines of evidence: compositional analysis, microhistology, and fecal stable isotopes. Ecological Research 25(4):789−800.

Davis, C.A., D.M. Leslie, Jr., Walter, W.D., and A.E. Graber. Mountain biking trail use affects reproductive success of nesting golden-cheecked warblers. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 122(3): 465−474.


Walter, W.D., T J. Zimmerman, D. M. Leslie, Jr., and J. A. Jenks. Dietary response of sympatric deer to fire using stable isotope analysis in liver tissue. Wildlife Biology in Practice 5(2):128−135.

Walter, W.D., K.C. VerCauteren, H. Campa, III, W.R. Clark, J.W. Fischer, S.E. Hygnstrom, N.E. Mathews, C.K. Nielsen, E.M. Schauber, T.R. Van Deelen, and S.R. Winterstein. Regional assessment on influence of landscape configuration and connectivity on range size of white-tailed deer. Landscape Ecology. 24(10): 1405−1420.

Spraker, T. R., K. C. VerCauteren, T. L. Gidlewski, R. D. Munger, W. D. Walter, A. Balachandran, and K. I. O'Rourke. Impact of age and sex of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) on follicle counts from rectal mucosal biopsies for preclinical detection of chronic wasting disease. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 21(6): 868−870.

Walter, W.D., and D.M. Leslie, Jr. Stable isotope ratio analysis to differentiate temporal diets of a free-ranging herbivore. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 23(14): 2190−2194.

Walter, W.D., K.C. VerCauteren, J.M. Gilsdorf, and S.E. Hygnstrom. Crop, native vegetation, and biofuels: response of white-tailed deer to changing management priorities. Journal of Wildlife Management 73(3):339−344.


Gildorf, J.M., K.C. Vercauteren, S.E. Hygnstrom,W.D.Walter, J.R. Boner, and G.M. Clements. An integrated vehicle-mounted telemetry system for VHF telemetry applications. Journal of Wildlife Management 72(5):1241−1246.


Walter, W.D., D.M. Leslie, Jr., and J.A. Jenks. Response of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) to wind-power development in southwestern Oklahoma. American Midland Naturalist 156:363-375.


Walter, W.D., D.M. Leslie, Jr., J.H. Herner-Thogmartin, K.G. Smith, and M.E. Cartwright. Efficacy of immobilizing free-ranging elk with Telazol® and xylazine hydrochloride using transmitter-equipped darts. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41: 395-400.

Walter, W.D., R.L. Bryant, and D.M. Leslie, Jr. Unusual documentation of elk behaviors using automated cameras. Proceeding of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 85: 81-83.


Walter, W.D., H.J. Kilpatrick, and M.A. Gregonis. Does immunocontraception improve condition of free-ranging female white-tailed deer? Journal of Wildlife Management 67:762-766.


Walter, W.D., and D.M. Leslie, Jr. Harvest strategies and numbers of elk (Cervus elaphus) in Oklahoma, 1987-2002. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 82:89-94

Walter, W.D., P.J. Pekins, A.T. Rutberg, and H.J. Kilpatrick. Evaluation of immunocontraception in suburban white-tailed deer. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30: 186-192.

Walter, W.D., P.J. Pekins, A.T. Rutberg, and H.J. Kilpatrick. Evaluation of immunocontraceptive adjuvants, titers, and fecal pregnancy indicators in free-ranging white-tailed deer. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:908-914.


Kilpatrick, H.J., and W.D. Walter. A controlled archery deer hunt in a residential community: cost, effectiveness, and deer recovery rates. Wildlife Society Bulletin 27:115-123.


Kilpatrick, H.J., and W.D. Walter. Urban deer management: a community vote. Wildlife Society Bulletin 25:388-390.

Book Chapters


Walter, W.D., J.W. Fischer, S. Baruch-Mordo, and K.C. VerCauteren. What is the proper method to delineate home range of an animal using today's advanced GPS telemetry systems: the initial step. In: Modern telemetry, Intech, Open Access Publisher. http://www.intechopen.com/source/pdfs/21099.pdf


Ward, A.I., K.C. VerCauteren, W.D. Walter, E. Gilot-Fromont, S. Rossi, G. Edwards-Jones, M. Lambert, M.R. Hutchings, and R.J. Delahay. Options for the control of disease 3: targeting the environment. Pages 147−168 in R.J. Delahay, M.R. Hutchings, and G.C. Smith (eds) Management of disease in wild mammals. Springer.

Technical and Non-refereed Publications


Hopkins, M.C., Carlson, C.M., Cross, P.C., Johnson, C.J., Richards, B.J., Russell, R.E., Samuel, M.D., Sargeant, G.A., Walsh, D.P., and Walter, W.D., 2019, Chronic Wasting Disease--Research by the U.S. Geological Survey and Partners: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2019‒1109, 29 p., doi.org/10.3133/ofr20191109


Carlson, C.M., Hopkins, M.C., Nguyen, N.T., Richards, B.J., Walsh, D.P., and Walter, W.D., 2018 Chronic wasting disease: status, science, and management support by the U.S. Geological Survey: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2017-1138, 8 p., doi.org/10.3133/ofr20171138.


Walter, W.D., C. W. Anderson, and K.C. VerCauteren. Recommendations for on-farm wildlife mitigation practices to prevent transmission of bovine tuberculosis between livestock and white-tailed deer. Final Report, Michigan Department of Agriculture-Animal Industry Division.


Walter, W.D., C. W. Anderson, M.J. Lavelle, J. W. Fischer, S.E. Hygnstrom, and K.C. VerCauteren. Assessment of methods for redistributing elk to benefit vegetation in Rocky Mountain National Park. Final report, Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park, CO.

Avery, M.L., J.S. Humphrey, E.A. Tillman, M.P. Milleson, J.W. Fischer, T.S. Daughtery, W.E. Bruce, and W. D. Walter. Vulture Movements and Activity at Marine Corps Air Station, Beaufort, SC. Final Report, Southern Division, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Beaufort, SC.


Walter, W.D. Urban Wildlife Management. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:680. (Book review).


Walter, W.D., and D.M. Leslie, Jr. Population characteristics and movements of elk (Cervus elaphus) outside the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge. Final Report, Federal Aid Project W-148-R Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation, Oklahoma City. 203 pp.

Walter, W.D. Soay sheep: dynamics and selection in an island population. Journal of Mammalogy 87:181-182. (Book review)

2002 - 2006

Walter, W.D., and D.M. Leslie, Jr. Population characteristics and movements of elk (Cervus elaphus) outside the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge. Performance Report, Federal Aid Project W-148-R, Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation, Oklahoma City. 16pp.


Walter, W.D. Sandhill whitetails: providing new perspective for deer management. Journal of Mammalogy 85:173-174. (Book review)


Walter, W.D. A tale of two rabbits: New England or Eastern? Connecticut Wildlife 21:8-9.


Kilpatrick, H.J., M.A. Gregonis, W.A. Stober, K.K. Lima, and W.D. Walter.1997. Connecticut deer program summary, 1996. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Wildlife Division. Hartford, CT. 24pp.


Kilpatrick, H.J., M.A. Gregonis, K.K. Lima, K.A. Eccleston, and W.D. Walter. Connecticut deer program 5-year summary, 1991-1995. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Wildlife Division. Hartford, CT. 24pp.

Kilpatrick, H.J., M.A. Gregonis, W.D. Walter, K.K. Lima, and K.A. Eccleston. Wild turkey program annual report, 1995. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Wildlife Division. Hartford, CT. 27pp.